Cryptography 101: Encryption, Hashing, Salting and why I should care

Here is a brief run down – or tl;dr of the common security paradigms:

Encryption – Encryption is the process of taking a block of data (called plaintext) and transforming it into something that would not be understood. This process renders stealing the data irrelevant because the person stealing it would be unable to use it.

Decryption – The opposite process to encryption it takes seemingly unusable data (called cyphertext) and turns it back into usable data.

Hashing – Hashing is similar to encryption in that it renders a useful plaintext into a seemingly random series of characters. However the same hashing function will render the same plaintext into the same cyper each time – it is one-way only therefore you can never recover the original plaintext.

Salting – Salting is the process of decorating some plaintext before hashing – this is a way of staving off a rainbow table attack.

Rainbow Table – A rainbow table can be generated from a list of the most common passwords. You can then take hashed passwords and search for them in the Rainbow Table. The corresponding entry will give you the original password.

This post is a short glossary. For why you should care about them please look here.

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2 comments on “Cryptography 101: Encryption, Hashing, Salting and why I should care
  1. Heya! I just wanted to find out if you have got issue with cyber criminals? Our previous blog (wordpress) ended up being broken in to and i also wound up losing weeks associated with efforts as a result of zero files backup. Do you have any kind of methods to force away cyber criminals?

    • Phil Jeffes says:

      Sorry to hear that you were attacked. Can you define how they broke in? Did they get hold of a password and start defacing the site through the WordPress admin console or did they get into the database behind the site and start messing around there. I will look at doing a post about securing a WordPress site if that would be useful.

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